Comunicación y Lenguaje Idioma Extranjero

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Area description[1][editar | editar código]

With globalization, the English language has become a tool for accessing the information, communication, technology, science, culture, arts and labor markets. The English Area develops in a student the key competences for learning the language and, consequently, the four fundamental domains required to master it: listening, speaking, reading and writing. These domains have led to the following Area components, which are interdependent and complementary: learning to listen, speaking and interacting with others, understanding what is read and written expression.

An effective language teaching and learning process requires the selection of specific approaches and methods considering the generation of a relaxed and non-stressful learning experience, boost of self-confidence and enhance motivation to reduce the affective filter in the classroom.

The Area contents are developed mostly by using the functional communicative approach that focuses on the process of communication instead of the mastery of the language forms. Therefore, it demands the language’s use in a real context that provides the same natural conditions used when students learn their native language. This approach has a specific connection with Vigostsky´s sociocultural theory, which stresses languages as a tool in a socially mediated process.

The introductory stage of the Area is developed through Total Physical Response (TPR) and successively the cooperative and collaborative learning and the Natural Approach Method, as well as others, to accomplish the development of the linguistic communicative competencies thus the student will gradually improve listening, speaking, reading and writing so the teacher´s role is to facilitate communication, while the student carries out communicative activities: problem solving, games, role playing and different discussion tasks, among others.

English learning promotes the development of competences from other curricular areas that allow students to act critically and responsibly within a framework of values. The topics to be addressed on this area were carefully selected; furthermore, the student’s interests and context have also been considered as fundamental for this particular purpose.

The contents and methodology provide an excellent opportunity to get acquainted with the cultural practices.

The English Area was built in a participative manner by specialists and in the current year 2018 it went through a period of validation as established in Acuerdo Ministerial No. 91-2018, dated January 9, 2018; specialists and teachers from all over the country participated in this validation.

The significant changes that this area presents are aimed at strengthening the components. The area competences and grade competences, learning outcomes, and the new contents were designed and incorporated to develop the key competences in students for learning the new language.

The area presents the following components: learning to listen, speaking an interacting with others, understanding what is read and written expression, all of them will be developed mostly by using the functional communicative approach.

The cultural aspect and the learning of vocabulary will be used transversally across of each one of these components thanks to the communicative approach that mainly focusses on the process of communication.

Area Competences[editar | editar código]

  1. Clearly understands oral expressions about known situations or personal interests.
  2. Communicates simple ideas orally with an appropriate grammatical structure and about familiar topics.
  3. Understands the meaning of simple texts, in oral or silent readings, about daily matters.
  4. Writes simple texts on familiar topics or personal interests, using a proper grammatical structure, vocabulary and correct spelling.

Components[editar | editar código]

The English Area comprises the four following components:

Learning to Listen[editar | editar código]

This component promotes the development of skills related to the ability to listen and, consequently, to properly understand and pronounce the vocabulary proposed in this curricular Area.

Through the TPR method, the student listens and identifies basic indications and carries them out. This facilitates the learning of verbs, auxiliary verbs, phrases, and simple sentences; as it naturally happens in the student’s native language. By applying this methodology; at the beginning level, the identification of proper intonation and pronunciation patterns from the new language starts.

Speaking and Interacting with others[editar | editar código]

The purpose of this component is to promote oral communication and to this effect, daily life situations are simulated: personal introductions, requesting and giving information, rules of courtesy, greetings, describing qualities, recognizing objects, expressing wishes. An emphasis on expressing the student’s interests and preferences is always considered.

These situations are carried out among students and the students with their teacher, taking into consideration the language used and the relationship between his cultural background and the cultural aspect from the English language.

This component takes a look at producing ideas in an integrated way: using listening comprehension, oral expression, reading comprehension, as well as written expression. However, the emphasis is on the oral production in such a way that, the different activities for language acquisition are focused on communicating.

Understanding what is Read[editar | editar código]

Reading comprehension refers to the process of decoding written messages. This involves the interpretation of words, sentences, signs, icons, drawings and other types of resources that are used in a text.

The aim of this component is the development of the elements that constitute the process involved in reading: comprehension, vocabulary development and reading fluency. In order to achieve this purpose, readings and simple texts are proposed as the main learning resource, along with recreational activities to encourage students to read and develop skills by carrying out strategies in a fun and entertaining environment. Through this component the student will acquire and enrich his vocabulary.

By practicing reading, the student uses cognitive and metacognitive strategies that were achieved when he learned to read and write in his native language, taking into account or considering he applies them in a very specific way by transferring them to a new communication code.

Written Expression[editar | editar código]

This component promotes writing as a communicative practice by using previously acquired tools such as the alphabet and notions of grammar (structures and tenses, question formation, making sentences into one paragraph, transforming a complex sentence into a set of simple ones).

To achieve this goal, the student practices writing assignments based on reading passages, because of the close relationship between reading and writing. Writing is presented in a variety of different and entertaining activities: puzzles, spelling bee, sentence scrambles, making ID cards, picture descriptions, making posters, and completing exercises focused on correct spelling and the development of vocabulary. Writing reinforces the importance of cohesion and coherence of the language by having the student create his own phrases, sentences and simple texts.

Writing corresponds to the most complex stage in learning a second or third language. Therefore, the teacher must provide permanent and constructive feedback. The teacher’s attitude should always be one of a motivator.

Mallas curriculares y competencias por grado[editar | editar código]

(Seleccionar el título del grado para ir a la malla curricular completa).
Primer grado básico Segundo grado básico Tercer grado básico
1. Responds to basic oral instructions given in English at school. 1. Understands simple phrases and specific range of vocabulary concerning to known topics in short dialogues and oral sentences. 1. Understands basic sentences in simple and compound tenses in dialogues and conversations.
2. Answers orally to simple directions, questions and gives basic information by using specific topics framed at school and family. 2. Communicates ideas using familiar phrases, everyday expressions and structured ideas by means of speeches. 2. Expresses ideas and opinions orally, related to relevant topics through simple sentences.
3. Reads aloud and silently: syllables, common words and phrases in English. 3. Reads simple sentences in a given text about his daily life matters. 3. Reads very basic texts concerning to his immediate environment and background.
4. Writes words and simple phrases and sentences in the new language with the right spelling and grammar structure. 4. Writes simple sentences and descriptions of his environment by using basic terms. 4. Produces simple narrations in a written form with an appropriate grammatical structure and accurate spelling on a variety of topics.

Assessment criteria[editar | editar código]

The assessment criteria are statements which mainly function to guide the teacher towards the aspects that must be taken into account when determining the type and learning level achieved by the student at each stage of the educational process, according to the established competencies in the curriculum. From this point of view, it can be said that they work as regulators of the learning-assessment teaching strategies.

Bibliography[editar | editar código]

Go to the bibliography

Notes[editar | editar código]

  1. Text presented here is taken verbatim from the original.

Documento por medio del cual el Despacho Superior del Ministerio resuelve o acuerda la resolución de un asunto. Es firmado y autorizado por el Ministro (a) y refrendado por un Viceministro (a).