Comunicación y Lenguaje Idioma Extranjero
Area description[editar | editar código]
With the globalization, English language has become a tool for accessing to information, communication, technology, science, culture, arts and labor market. The English area develops in students the core competences for learning a language and consequently the four fundamental domains required to master it: listening, speaking, reading and writing.
These domains have led to the following components which are interdependent and complementary: listening comprehension, oral expression and interaction, reading comprehension and written expression.
Effective language teaching and learning process requires the selection of the specific approaches and methods beside a low affective filter in the classroom. The English area aims the linguistic communicative competences development thus, the students will gradually enhance listening, speaking, reading and writing: beginning with the TPR –Total Physical Response, the different contents are developed mostly, by using the functional communicative approach which focuses on the process of communication instead of the mastery of the language forms; therefore, it demands the language’s use in a real context that provides the same natural conditions used when students learn their native language, so the teacher ́s roll is to facilitate communication while the students carry out communicative activities: problem solving, games, roll- plays and different discussion tasks, among others. This approach has an specific connection with Vigostsky ́s sociocultural theory which stresses languages as a tool in a socially mediated process.
English learning promotes the development of competences from other curricular areas that allow students to act critically and responsibly within a framework of values. The topics to be addressed on this area were carefully selected; furthermore, the student's interests and context have also been considered as fundamental for this particular purpose.
It is expected that when student complete Middle School or as it is called in Guatemala “ Ciclo Básico, he will have achieved the competencies corresponding to a level A, from the Common European Framework of Reference for Foreign Languages.
Components[editar | editar código]
For its development, the English area is integrated with the following components:
1. Learning to listen
This component promotes the development of skills related to the ability to listen and, consequently, to properly understand and pronounce the proposed vocabulary in the suggested topics for the development of this curricular area.
Through the TPR method, the student listens and identifies basic indications and carries them out, this facilitates the learning of verbs, auxiliary verbs, phrases, and simple sentences, as it naturally happens in the student’s native language. By applying this methodology initially, the identification of a proper intonation and pronunciation patterns from the new language begins.
The methodology provides an excellent opportunity to get acquainted with the cultural practices presented in the form of sequences to follow.
2. Speaking and interacting with others
The purpose of this component is to promote oral communication and to this effect, daily life situations are simulated using vocabulary which refers to actions, personal introductions, requesting and giving information, rules of courtesy, greetings, describing qualities, recognizing objects, expressing wishes. An emphasis on expressing the student interests, and preferences is always considered.
In order for ideas to become fluent, the student is encouraged to use basic connectors such as: "then", "and", etc. These words and other help the students to initiate the construction of simple phrases in the English language.
The use of basic grammar structures and sentence patterns in basic tenses are used within a functional and communicative approach. In other words, the student uses grammar to communicate ideas using a specific strategy and following a pattern that later could be transferred to a real-life situation.
This component takes a look at producing ideas in an integrated way: using listening comprehension, oral expression, reading comprehension, as well as written expression. However, the emphasis is on the oral production in such a way that, the different activities for language acquisition, are focused on communicating and generating a new set of social skill that could be practiced among students, and the students with his teacher taking into consideration the language used and the relationship between his cultural background and the cultural aspect from the English language.
3. Understanding what is read
Reading comprehension refers to the process of decoding written messages which involves the interpretation of words, sentences, signs, icons, drawings and other types of resources that are used in a text. The process intention is to generate a concept or idea and its understanding.
The aim of this component is the development of the elements that constitute the process involved in reading: comprehension, vocabulary development, fluency while reading. In order to achieve its purpose, the readings and simple texts are proposed as the main learning resource and the use of recreational activities to encourage students to read and develop skills using strategies applied in fun and entertaining environment.
Through this component it is expected that the student acquire and enrich his vocabulary and as well as having the necessary tools to compare the culture presented in the reading segments with his own cultural background.
By practicing reading, the student uses cognitive and metacognitive strategies that were achieved when he learned to read and write in his native language, but in this case, he applies them in a very specific way by transferring to a new communication code. This process also works backwards.
4. Writing Expression
This component promotes writing as a communicative practice by using previously acquired tools such as the alphabet and notions of grammar: structures and tenses, question formation, making sentences into one transforming a complex sentence into a set of simple ones. It also considers the correct use of tools such as articles and connectors.
In order to achieve this goal, the students practice writing assignments based on reading passages because of the close relationship between reading and writing. It is expected that writing is presented in a variety of different and entertaining activities: puzzles, spelling bee, sentence scrambles, ID cards making, picture descriptions, making posters and completing exercises focused on the correct spelling, the development of vocabulary. It also considers the importance of cohesion and coherence of the language by creating their own phrases, sentences and simple texts as similar to the English language patterns presented in class.
It is also very important to stress that writing corresponds to the most complex stage in learning a second or third language. Therefore, the teacher must provide permanent and constructive feedback. The teacher’s attitude should always be one of a motivator.
Area competences[editar | editar código]
- Clearly understands oral expressions about known situations or personal interests.
- Communicates simple ideas orally with an appropriate grammar structure and about familiar topics.
- Understands the meaning of simple texts, in oral or silent readings about daily matters.
- Writes simple texts on familiar topics or personal interests, using a proper grammar structure, vocabulary and correct spelling.
Mallas curriculares[editar | editar código]
- Primer grado del ciclo de Educación Básica
- Malla curricular de Comunicación y Lenguaje L 3 Inglés - Segundo Grado (antiguo)
- Malla curricular de Comunicación y Lenguaje L 3 Inglés - Tercer Grado (antiguo)
Assessment criteria[editar | editar código]
The assessment criteria are statements which their main function is to guide teachers towards the aspects that must be taken into account to determining the type and learning level achieved by students at each stage of the educational process, according to the established competences in the curriculum. From this point of view, it can be said that they function as regulators of the learning-assessment-teaching strategies.
For this area of the curriculum, some proposals of assessment criteria by each achievement indicator are presented:
- Responds to basic oral instructions at school:
- Using appropriately the meaning of words related to daily school life in different conversations.
- Explaining in his own words what he understands of specific phrases related to daily activities at school given by the teacher or his classmates.
- Following with exactitude common directions given by the teacher.
- Answers orally to simple directions, questions and gives basic information:
- Giving greetings and farewells in a conversation.
- Asking and answering correctly basic questions about using simple present and present continuous tense in a dialogue with his classmates. 2.3 Giving information about prices, products or recipes.
- Reads and pronounces: syllables, common words and phrases:
- Reading aloud a short paragraph with understandable pronunciation. 3.2 Answering questions of reading comprehension.
- Identifying the main idea and the essential information of phrases.
- Writes words and simple phrases with the right spelling and grammar structure.
- Writing sentences with accurate spelling.
- Writing an e-mail or a short message according to the right grammar structure.
- Creating phrases and sentences about his school or
Bibliography[editar | editar código]
Notes[editar | editar código]
- Text presented here is taken verbatim from the original.